Above the Line:
Refers to the creative elements of a production such as the writer, producer, director and actors. Literally, these are the elements which appeared above a bold line which divided standard production budget sheets. (Production)
Automatic Dialog Replacement. Also known as "looping." A process of re-recording dialog in the studio in synchronization with the picture.
Below the Line:
Refers to the technical elements of the production staff. Literally, these are the budget elements that appeared below a bold line on a standard production budget form. (Production)
A Call Sheet is a list of required actors and crew members needed for scenes to be shot on a given day The Call Sheet is prepared by the Assistant Directors and includes the time of day that each actor and crew person should report to stage or location for that day.
The process of notating the changing position of the camera, lens size, and focus during a particular scene. (Production)
A system that displays spoken dialogue in the form of text on a television for the benefit of the hearing impaired.
Day Out of Days:
A form designating the workdays for various cast or crewmembers of a given production.
The process of controlling the color in the film or video and keeping it consistant from scene to scene. This process is done electronically during post production.
The footage of a days shoot to be viewed by the director, producers, cimematographer, and editor early the next day.
Depth of Field:
The amount of space within lens view which will maintain acceptable focus at given settings (i.e. camera speed, film speed, lens aperture). (Cinematography)
The dialog coach assists actors in delivering the manner of speaking required for each role in a show.
The sound editor that specializes in editing the show's dialog
The early cut of a show under the director's control independent of producer or studio decisions and influence.
A dolly is a small vehicle or truck that helps transport the camera and its crew.
Editing is the process of assembling and sequencing trimmed portions of raw material into a final viewable product.
Edit Decision List (EDL):
The list of SMPTE codes, in footage and frames, and including instructions for fades, dissolves and other special effects which corresponds to all the segments that the editor of a film or videotape production has decided to use in the final cut.
Video industry term for the tape containing the finished (edited) program.
Stopping a frame of film or video (or repeating it so that it appears to be stopped). A freeze frames takes the moving image and makes it look like a still photograph.
A sound track recorded as a guide for the editor.
A guide track could be a commentary recorded by a member of the production team as a guide to make sure the pictures fit in the edit. It is then replaced by a professional voice-over artist's commentary when the programme is complete.
Letterbox describes the tv screen when black bars have been put above and below the picture so that widescreen material can be seen in its entirety on a 4x3 television screen.
A piece of audio and/or picture which is played continuously over and over again. This was originally achieved by joining a length of film or audio tape at the ends to form a loop but now it's often achieved electronically.
When lip movement and the speech heard fit together perfectly.
This refers to the music and effects tracks which are combined into one (or a stereo pair) for use with foreign language re recording of a film or video program.
A mask fitting over the camera lens so that only a certain area of the image is exposed (something like a keyhole cut-out, for instance). Now also used to describe post production techniques where an object can be separated from its background and then manipulated on its own or used elsewhere.
A stylised form of editing using a series of rapidly changing images. Often used to suggest a passage of time, travel, dream sequences etc.
Off-line editing is the process of editing low quality digitized copies of the original footage to generate an Edit Decision List. The editor will apply the EDL toward editing the high quality footage.
The editing of footage at the original, highest quality. The process is done after the picture has been locked.
Pay or Play:
A contract provision which commits the production company to compensate a cast or crew member for a project whether or not that project ever goes into production.
After principal photography, a show will go into post production which includes editing, , color correction, titles, composing music, sound mixing.
All shots that includes the lead actors.
The point at which a product is displayed on screen as an advertisement within the tv show. The Producers and studio agree to place a company's logo or product visibly within shots.
An amount of money paid to a writer or performer for additional exploitation of their work, for instance for repeats or sales.
The end of the first stage of editing in which all material has been roughly assembled in the correct order.
A preliminary trial stage in the process of editing a film. Shots are laid out in approximate relationship to an end product without detailed attention to the individual cutting points. (Film Editing)
Unedited source material from a shoot - the recording tapes taken out of the camera immediately after shooting and before the editing stage. The term originates from film where the shot negative is sent to the film laboratories at the end of each day and processed over night (in a rush) for viewing the following morning.
Junior member of the production team on a big shoot or junior employee in a post production house or studio. The person who does the general odd jobs and running about to fetch things, in a editing environment often the person who fetches coffee, takes orders for lunch etc.
A handheld board that displays scene and take number for the scene about to be shot. Slate also includes time code display and a clapboard used to sync audio with the picture.
Items of decoration which are not designated in the script or by the director as part of specific action. (Production)
These are crews that are in charge of filming minor scenes, usually at a separate location.
A stand-in is a person who resembles a show's actor and is used as a reference for during long lighting setups and camera blocking.
General, non-specific shots, often saved from unused material shot for programmes. Stock shots might include views of buildings or landscapes, shots of aeroplanes taking off, trains leaving stations etc. These might be bought by film libraries or stored in the BBC libraries and then made available to productions. Such shots are also referred to as "library footage".
A series of still images, usually drawings, depicting the structure of a film, sequence, animation or graphic. Used in the early stages of a production to communicate the content and enable discussion between those involved.
A machine that transfers film to a video signal. This also generically refers to the process of film-to-tape transfers
Time code is an electronic signal which is recorded to identify each frame on a videotape. Time code is displayed as four pairs of numbers (separated by dots) which signify:
So 09:10:32:22 means either that tape number 9 is stopped 10 minutes, 32 seconds and 22 frames after the recording started or that we recorded this piece of material just after ten past nine in the morning - 09 hours:10 minutes:32 seconds:22 frames.
Being a "Triple threat" means you're a dancer- singer-actor. This term was coined years ago for people like John Travolta and Patrick Swayze. More recently Catherine Zeta Jones has become a "triple Threat" in Hollywood. Although most actors don't possess all three, you should strive to expand your personal goals and at least be able to dance a jig and carry a tune.
The process of simultaneously recording filmed picture onto video tape by means of the same lens system in order to immediately evaluate a take as soon as it is completed. (Production)
Random background conversation employed to produce certain atmospheric effects.
An artist who is directed to perform specific actions rather than being a normal extra. A walk on is employed using a different type of contract to a supporting artist (SA) and it is important to be aware that if an SA is given specific action to perform on the spur of the moment then their contract needs to be upgraded to a walk on contract.
A sound track that is recorded without a simultaneous picture.
Usually background ambient sound to help in the edit where it can be used on mute cutaway pictures to prevent a jarring change in the sound quality which would otherwise be noticeable to the viewer.
The professional on the set generally in charge of controlling animals used in a TV production